BOOK II: LOCAL TAXATION AND FISCAL MATTERS
[Sections 128 to 383]
TITLE ONE. – LOCAL GOVERNMENT TAXATION
CHAPTER 1 – GENERAL PROVISIONS
SEC. 128. Scope.- The provisions herein shall govern the exercise by provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays of their taxing and other revenue-raising powers.
SEC. 129. Power to Create Sources of Revenue. – Each local government unit shall exercise its power to create its own sources of revenue and to levy taxes, fees, and charges subject to the provisions herein, consistent with the basic policy of local autonomy. Such taxes, fees, andcharges shall accrue exclusively to the local government units.
SEC. 130. Fundamental Principles. – The following fundamental principles shall govern the exercise of the taxing and other revenue-raising powers of local government units:
(a) Taxation shall be uniform in each local government unit; (b) Taxes, fees, charges and other impositions shall:
(1) be equitable and based as far as practicable on the taxpayer’s ability to pay;
(2) be levied and collected only for public purposes;
(3) not be unjust, excessive, oppressive, or confiscatory;
(4) not be contrary to law, public policy, national economic policy, or in restraint of trade;
(c) The collection of local taxes, fees, charges and other impositions shall in no case be let to any private person;
(d) The revenue collected pursuant to the provisions of this Code shall inure solely to the benefit of, and be subject to disposition by, the local government unit levying the tax, fee, charge or other imposition unless otherwise specifically provided herein; and,
(e) Each local government unit shall, as far as practicable, evolve a progressive system of taxation.
SEC. 131. Definition of Terms. – When used in this Title, the term:
(a) “Agricultural Product” includes the yield of the soil, such as corn, rice, wheat, rye, hay, coconuts, sugarcane, tobacco, root crops, vegetables, fruits, flowers, and their by-products; ordinary salt; all kinds of fish; poultry; and livestock and animal products, whether in their original form or not. The phrase “whether in their original form or not” refers to the transformation of said products by the farmer, fisherman, producer or owner through the application of processes to preserve or otherwise to prepare said products for the market such as freezing, drying, salting, smoking, or stripping for purposes of preserving or otherwise preparing said products for the market;
(b) “Amusement” is a pleasurable diversion and entertainment. It is synonymous to relaxation, avocation, pastime, or fun;
(c) “Amusement Places” include theaters, cinemas, concert halls, circuses and other places of amusement where one seeks admission to entertain oneself by seeing or viewing the show or performances;
(d) “Business” means trade or commercial activity regularly engaged in as a means of livelihood or with a view to profit;
(e) “Banks and other financial institutions” include non-bank financial intermediaries, lending investors, finance and investment companies, pawnshops, money shops, insurance companies, stock markets, stock brokers and dealers in securities and foreign exchange, as defined under applicable laws, or rules and regulations thereunder;
(f) “Capital Investment” is the capital which a person employs in any undertaking, or which he contributes to the capital of a partnership, corporation, or any other juridical entity or association in a particular taxing jurisdiction;
(g) “Charges” refer to pecuniary liability, as rents or fees against persons or property; (h) “Contractor” includes persons, natural or juridical, not subject to professional tax under Section 139 of this Code, whose activity consists essentially of the sale of all kinds of services for a fee, regardless of whether or not the performance of the service calls for the exercise or use of the physical or mental faculties of such contractor or his employees.
As used in this Section, the term “contractor” shall include general engineering, general building and specialty contractors as defined under applicable laws; filling, demolition and salvage works contractors; proprietors or operators of mine drilling apparatus; proprietors or operators of dockyards; persons engaged in the installation of water system, and gas or electric light, heat, or power; proprietors or operators of smelting plants; engraving, plating, and plastic lamination establishments; proprietors or operators of establishments for repairing, repainting, upholstering, washing or greasing of vehicles, heavy equipment, vulcanizing, recapping and battery charging; proprietors or operators of furniture shops and establishments for planing or surfacing and recutting of lumber, and sawmills under contract to saw or cut logs belonging to others; proprietors or operators of dry- cleaning or dyeing establishments, steam laundries, and laundries using washing machines; proprietors or owners of shops for the repair of any kind of mechanical and electrical devices, instruments, apparatus, or furniture and shoe repairing by machine or any mechanical contrivance; proprietors or operators of establishments or lots for parking purposes; proprietors or operators of tailor shops, dress shops, milliners and hatters, beauty parlors, barbershops, massage clinics, sauna, Turkish and Swedish baths, slenderizing and building saloons and similar establishments; photographic studios; funeral parlors; proprietors or operators of hotels, motels, and lodging houses; proprietors or operators of arrastre and stevedoring, warehousing, or forwarding establishments; master plumbers, smiths, and house or sign painters; printers, bookbinders, lithographers; publishers except those engaged in the publication or printing of any newspaper, magazine, review or bulletin which appears at regular intervals with fixed prices for subscription and sale and which is not devoted principally to the publication of advertisements; business agents, private detective or watchman agencies, commercial and immigration brokers, and cinematographic film owners, lessors and distributors.
(i) “Corporation” includes partnerships, no matter how created or organized, joint-stock companies, joint accounts (cuentas en participacion), associations or insurance companies but does not include general professional partnerships and a joint venture or consortium formed for the purpose of undertaking construction projects or engaging in petroleum, coal, geothermal, and other energy operations pursuant to an operating or consortium agreement under a service contract with the government. General professional partnerships are partnerships formed by persons for the sole purpose of exercising their common profession, no part of the income of which is derived from engaging in any trade or business. The term “resident foreign” when applied to a corporation means a foreign corporation not otherwise organized under the laws of the Philippines but engaged in trade or business within the Philippines;
(j) “Countryside and Barangay Business Enterprise” refers to any business entity, association, or cooperative registered under the provisions of Republic Act Numbered Sixty-eight hundred ten (R.A. No. 6810), otherwise known as “Magna Carta For Countryside And Barangay Business Enterprises (Kalakalan 20)”;
(k) “Dealer” means one whose business is to buy and sell merchandise, goods, and chattels as a merchant. He stands immediately between the producer or manufacturer and the consumer and depends for his profit not upon the labor he bestows upon his commodities but upon the skill and foresight with which he watches the market;
(l) “Fee” means a charge fixed by law or ordinance for the regulation or inspection of a business or activity;
(m) “Franchise” is a right or privilege, affected with public interest which is conferred upon private persons or corporations, under such terms and conditions as the government and its political subdivisions may impose in the interest of public welfare, security, and safety;
(n) “Gross Sales or Receipts” include the total amount of money or its equivalent representing the contract price, compensation or service fee, including the amount charged or materials supplied with the services and deposits or advance payments actually or constructively received during the taxable quarter for the services performed or to be performed for another person excluding discounts if determinable at the time of sales, sales return, excise tax, and value-added tax (VAT);